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GeneralGeneral information and stories regarding building a house in Pattaya, Thailand.
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Good Building Ideas


During the building of the first house I observed what I thought was a pretty good idea using double cement brick construction.

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Architecture Examples


A few current Thai architecture examples, both from typical Thai style to higher end expat dwellings.

I have taken some shots of various houses to give a sample of Thai architecture.... or should we say 'modern day Thai architecture'. The classic wooden Thai building style is pretty quickly fading out. Today, almost all Thai houses build are of concrete block design. As for the expat house - these are again normally of block construction and come in various price ranges from about 1,000,000 Baht on up to 20,000,000 Baht and more. Below are some samples of the typical Thai houses and expat houses you might see around nowadays:

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BasicsThe basics of building the house, including the foundation columns, concrete pour, walls, windows and the roof.
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Basic Materials: Cement


Cement is of special import since it is the primary component which adds strength to the house. Normally for smaller projects cement is hand mixed and poured, but there is a company called CPAC which will come and pour to the grade and quantity specified. The hand mix cement normally comes in 50 kilogram bags, which is then mixed with sand and stone. In some applications, such as affixing tile to the wall, no stone is used and the product is called cement. If mixed with stone, which adds strength, it is called concrete. There are many different brands and grades of cement. A low quality cement will cost about 80% of a high quality grade, which I point out, since this is a very poor way to save money and is of course used by corner cutters to the disadvantage of house buyers. As of this date a 50 kilogram bag of cement ranges in price from approximately 90 Baht to 130 Baht. A standard durable recommended brand is tiger green label (suua). A 100 square meter house might use 300 bags at most, with an approximate budget of 34,500 Baht, using a low quality cement would save just 6,000 Baht on the entire house.

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Basic Materials: Blocks


The basic materials for building houses are cement blocks, red bricks and superblocks. The least expensive material is the cement block, followed by the red brick and the the more expensive superblock. The cement block is produced locally is small factories and, although there is only one grade, sometimes the manufacturing process leaves the blocks not straight, which makes them harder to use. Other times the raw material mix is not correct and the produced blocks are brittle. As far as the brittle factor, you can check it by holding a block at shoulder height and dropping on a sandy surface. It should not break up. Red bricks are also a very popular material for building houses. And nowadays more and more houses are being built with the superblocks. The superblock a fairly light material with encapsulated air pockets which is designed as an insulator -- the idea being to keep the house cool. The downside to superblocks are the cost and also the fact that most construction workers normally don't have experience with them. Therefore a special team must be sought out at a higher than normal labor cost.

Another material which isn't used too often and is a bit difficult to find is the heavy cement block. The weight of a regular cement block is about 5 kilograms, where the weight of a heavy cement block is about 13 kilograms. These blocks make an excellent building material and can be used instead of the regular cement block to make the project more durable.

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Basic Materials: Metal Rebar


Metal rebar normally comes in long circular strands of 10 meters each. The unit of measure is the 'hun', each hun being 3 millimeters in diameter. The number of hun of the rebar determines its thickness, for example a metal rebar 4 hun would be 12 millimeters thick. Above 2 hun, there will be various designations of full, normal or light. These refer to the grade of the metal, with full being the best. The rebar is the backbone of house construction, it is what gives the finished product strength. It is used in the foundation columns, floor, walls and other areas. As an example, normally the rebar used in the foundation column should be 4 hun full or more. In flooring 2 or 3 hun strands will be used and tied together in a criss-cross pattern. For more information on the hun, visit the blog article that here --> hun: unit of measure for metal rebar .

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Foundation Columns


This is one of the most important aspects of a new house. The house is anchored with foundation columns which are set in concrete footings in deep square post holes. The process is as follows: 1.) Post holes are dug and a square rebar frame which stands about 3 meters tall is concreted in place. 2.) A rebar frame is put in place for a base 'footing' which attaches the foundation pillar frames. 3.) Concrete is poured over the footing. 4.) Lastly, the concrete is poured within wood frames around the post frame to create the foundation pillar.

In case you're thinking that the contractor should know how to do this and they always do it correctly -- just today I saw a house where the columns were being set in an very poor manner, the same way as you would set up perimeter wall posts. The motivation in this case was an owner who had contracted for a fixed price, including all materials, for a house to be built while he is out of the country. It is a sad situation because the savings for doing the foundation column in a very very inadequate manner will save about 1000 Baht, where the house price is closer to 2 million Baht.

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Concrete Pour


The raw material is called cement, once it is mixed with stones it becomes concrete. The cement section of the basic materials page has information on cement, the purpose of this page is to show a concrete floor pour example.

There are a lot of games played when laying concrete floors by corner cutters. The main thing to watch for is the thickness of the actual concrete pour and the metal being used. A friend of mine contracted to have a back patio poured, but couldn't be there to supervise. Later he needed to get at some piping under the patio, so he had to have plumbers come and cut out a section. Then he could see the way the original contractor had done the patio. The pour was a razor thin (about 1 or 2 centimeters) layer of cement on top of sand. The wire mesh was sitting in the sand, which accomplished nothing. Since the cost of materials for flooring are relatively inexpensive it is not productive to try to skimp in this area.

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Concrete block walls are formed by stacking blocks in rows to form the wall. A string, normally clear nylon, is used as a 'straight-line' to aid in the row being laid down straight. Between the blocks (on all sides), cement is used to keep them in place and add strength. Rebar is used at the intersection with a foundation column to add strength. A hole is drilled in the foundation post and the rebar strand, about 30 centimeters in length, is inserted in the hole. It is then laid on top of a row of blocks and cemented in place.

The 'chap' or stucco layer is applied next. The cement for this stage is mixed with less sand than for other applications. In the following example we used a thick coat of about 1 centimeter in depth. The 'chap' is what gives walls the real strength. A good job can be determined by examining the wall after the chap is applied and allowed to dry. If done poorly, small cracks will appear on the surface. When painted these cracks disappear and can't be detected.

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Tiles here come in three grades, A, B and C. Although it is hard to tell the difference and it may be tempting to go for grade C, the savings is small and it isn't recommended. The main problem with the grade C tiles is that the size of the tiles are not uniform. If you compare several tiles you can notice they are of slightly different sizes. This makes it hard for the tiler to lay them down in straight rows. I'm also told that the colors in grade B and C may be off (ie different from tile to tile), but I haven't noticed this on jobs I've seen using the lower grade tiles.

After the floor is poured and dried the tiles are ready to be laid. The tiler will ascertain the desired level of the floor (after the tile is laid down) and mark it with a 'straight line', which is normally clear nylon fishing line. The straight line is used to designate the desired level of the floor and is also used as a guide to lay the rows down straight. Each individual tile is tapped into place until it is just right.

Sometimes after the tile area in the main part of the house is laid, a skirt is added. This is 10 to 15 centimeter row of tiles that goes along the bottom of the wall and connects with the floor tile. This is attractive and protects the lower portion of the wall. The wall is scored prior to applying cement to allow for maximum adhesion. Plastic strips which come in various colors are often used to add a protective border along the edge of the tiled area.

Wall tile is commonly used in kitchens and bathrooms. The tile goes up to the desired level, normally about 2 meters from the floor.

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Roof: Materials


One of the most important decisions you make about the house you are going to build is the type of roofing material you use. There are two major ways to go here, tile or synthetic roof sheets.

Heavy tile: Nowadays this is the material of choice. It is very pretty and durable. Tile roofs add value to your house and put it in a different price category -- this becomes important should you decide to sell at some point in the future. The downside for tile is it is extremely heavy, and this requires a large and sturdy metal substructure which is expensive. Tile also cracks and chips easily if it is walked on. This normally isn't an issue except for cases where roof access is required. It is not secure in the sense that someone can easily gain illegal entry to your house by misplacing a few roof tiles.

Synthetic roof sheets: If you know you are building a house to live in forever and are simply not worried about resale value -- this may be the way to go. The roof sheets come in a variety of qualities, materials, and colors and will end up being a lot cheaper to install. As far as I know there are no downsides, EXCEPT (and it is a big except!) it isn't as pretty and if you've built a high quality house with sheet roofing the resale market won't be there.

This is one of those rare instances where paying more money doesn't lead to an increase of quality. If I were put on the spot and had to answer the question, 'Which roofing material is of better quality?', I would have to answer 'Synthetic roof sheeting'. This being said, in the future I will continue to use heavy tile since it is functional and the marketplace demands it.

The heavy tile roofing is all pretty good quality and starts at about 8.2 Baht a piece. One thing I did notice is that they gouge you when you buy the special pieces, ie. the corner pieces or top pieces (which can cost 4 or 5 times as much as a standard piece). When choosing the store and tile you are going to purchase I advise getting a price on all of the pieces up front so you won't be surprised later.

Another option which is recommended and commonly used today, is roofing insulation. This is especially appropriate if you plan to use air conditioning and have a low profile roof, as it will retain much of the cold air and lower your electricity bill.

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Roof: Tile Example


These are some shots from the cool thai house roof. Three specific things I would suggest when doing a roof: 1). Subcontract the roof out to a company that does only roofs. 2.) Make sure that the aluminum sheeting used in the valley is of proper width, at least a meter wide. The standard aluminum drainage sheeting sold for use in valleys is not sufficient. 3.) Make sure that the supporting walls are completed prior to laying the tile on the roof. Otherwise the roof metal will bend.

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Windows and Doors: Aluminum or Wood?


The first primary decision as far as external windows and doors is: aluminum or wood? Wood has a benefit of looking nice and is more classic Thai style, but normally one is not building a classic Thai house anyway. Aluminum looks modern, does not wear out or bleach and is fairly cost effective. Wood may be a tad cheaper and it is a material that can be installed by most contractors. With aluminum the contracting company will come to the job site, measure the exact window opening and install it right on site. The screens used with aluminum can be slid open and closed, unlike the ones for wood windows, which need to be unhinged and then opened inward. The bottom line is this: aluminum is typically the material of choice.

Inside doors do not need to be solid wood, but solid wood doors do add class. The bathroom doors are typically made from a type of PVC waterproof material. Typically there will be one specialist who frames wood windows and doors and the will do all the cutting, trimming and installing as required. There are numerous decisions that have to be made with each kind of window.

Aluminum or Wood?

The main decision with respect to windows is the choice of material; aluminum or wood.

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Windows and Doors: Options


Construction and Design Options

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DetailsThe details of the house, including ceiling layouts, roof eves, the kitchen, bathrooms, and electrical.
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The most common material for the inside ceiling is regular hung sheetrock. The sheetrock does come in a variety of qualities, with a special sheetrock available for high moisture areas such as bathrooms. The sheetrock is hung on a aluminum frame that is supported by wires secured to the roof truss. After the rough hanging is complete, the workman adjust the roof to be level prior to taping it. The taping covers all of the roof joints. Typically there is one designated framed access point to the attic area (that is, the area above the ceiling material).

There are two basic types of hung ceilings, one being sheetrock and the other made from prefabricated ceiling tiles. The prefabricated tiles are easier as far as maintenance since they are not permanently affixed and can be adjusted as required. Each tile is supported in a square frame. Should a tile break or discolor, it simply is removed and replaced. The picture at right shows an example of ceiling tiles.

Another great idea is a sheetrock ceiling done with recessed areas, ie. 2 levels. These look really nice and can be done fairly inexpensively by a company that specializes in ceilings.

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GRC (glass reinforced cement) sheeting is applied to a wood foundation to form the underside of the roof overhang (eves). Below is a sample of how the underside of the eves are prepared for the grc sheeting and how the grc sheeting is then applied. The example also covers the grc sheeting application to form a ceiling over a carport.

The main thing to watch for with grc sheeting is that the wood foundation is made of the proper wood. The wood should be 1 1/2" by 3". Using coconut wood, which is commonly done to squeeze a cent, is not recommended. It will degrade quickly if it comes in contact with moisture and is not very durable. The coconut wood which is often used (as shown below) is about 1/2 the size of the standard 1 1/2" by 3" wood.

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The idea of the cool thai house is basically to show how to build a quality good size house for under about 1,000,000 Baht. This will limit the type of kitchen you build. If you go with the modern European kitchen you can easily spend upwards of 300,000 Baht on the kitchen alone. There are a lot of stores which specialize in European kitchens, if this is the direction you are heading my only recommendation would be to shop the complete kitchen first, including stove, counter etc. and work with the architect to design the appropriate kitchen area. Homepro recently added a European kitchen design center, and has several kitchen displays to give you an idea of this option.

Normally the Thais cook outside. I've seen some nice European house designs which incorporate an outside kitchen, the kitchen being roofed but not enclosed. Cooking outside can solve a lot of maintenance problems and solves problems with the ever present ants and flies. It might be an idea to consider having an inside and outside cooking/kitchen area.

Sample Kitchen #1

What follows is an example of a low cost kitchen which relies on common materials used in house construction. This example allows for a space of about 3 by 3 meters. There is a surrounding counter constructed of red brick supports with tiled cement surfaces. The layout used here breaks up the counter to allow space for an oven, with space on either side of the counter for a refrigerator and hot water tank. The materials cost for the kitchen, not including the hot water heater, would be around 17,000 Baht as follows, ceiling fan = 1,000, exhaust fan = 1,000, tile = 4,000, sink = 3,000, cement = 1,000, hot/cold faucet = 2,000, plumbing = 1,000, cabinet doors = 4,000.

Sample Kitchen #2

This shows a very simple kitchen designed for a small house. There isn't very much in the way of materials required here, this kitchen could be done for about 5,000 Baht. The budget would be as follows: cold water faucet = 700 Baht, cabinet door = 1,000 Baht, tile = 2,000 Baht and cement = 1,000 Baht.

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One of the things I really got out of the cool thai house prototype is that the bathroom really has to be well laid out prior to starting construction. The plan (or house blueprint) will include some of the bathroom layout, but it is meant to be an overall guide and not exact. You can't really lay out the bathroom until you decide on all of the things which will go in there and have measurements for everything, including toilets, bathtubs, shower enclosures, and sinks. This same thing applies to everywhere in the house where cabinets and fixtures are going to be installed, but is especially true in the bathroom.

The first thing to decide is: Will each shower will have an individual hot water heater, will there be a central water heater. A central water heating unit isn't all that much more expensive than a good individual shower unit, but there are a lot of added expenses in plumbing it in and in additional hardware. The plumbing for the hot water should be copper, although there is also the option of using heavy metal pipe. The problem is this: it will probably rust out after about 10 years and as it is encased in cement, this isn't a very good option. You could design it so the copper plumbing runs above ground, but this isn't the way it is normally done. It seems that there are a lot of people that deal with hot water plumbing who are really expensive, to the point of being in the rip-off category. One copper plumber came to bid on doing the bathroom and related plumbing for the cool thai house and he wanted 10 times what the job eventually went for. Another thing which drives up costs is that hot and cold faucets are much more expensive than normal cold water ones. The bottom line here is that central hot water is nice but needs to be budgeted accordingly.

Since the bathroom and plumbing is one of the more expensive parts of the house, professional developers often try to cut corners. What comes to mind are plastic bathtubs with poor quality drain kits and no 'p-trap'. Plumbing in a bathtub is a lot of work and it isn't an easy thing to get at the under the bathtub plumbing once the tub is enclosed. To save say 5000 Baht by using poor a poor quality bathtub and accessories isn't worth it. A better option than a plastic bathtub is either a good acrylic bathtub or no bathtub at all.

Septics are another area to keep an eye on. It is so cost effective to add a couple of drainage rings at the onset of building that it is almost always better to be safe than sorry. The normal depth is 4 drainage rings, 5 or more is probably better. Septics are normally pretty trouble free, but I've had past experiences of the water not seeping into the soil because of hardness of the soil. There are companies that will bring a truck and pump out your septic for you, but this should only be required rarely.

Shower enclosures are gaining in popularity, and there are a lot of models on display at Homepro. They range in price from about 8000 Baht all the way up to 100,000 or more. A good quality one of tempered glass can be purchased for about 10000 Baht. I can't see any advantage to buying the acrylic drain panel, which is an option, as a concrete and tile base seems to be very sturdy and works great. If you purchase one an Homepro you can contract with them there for the labor, which is a good idea if you plumber hasn't done one before. This may well be the case (your plumber not having ever installed a shower stall before), since these only started becoming popular recently.

Lastly, sink enclosures. You can purchase sinks that come with a base, or a sink that is to be mounted in a enclosure. The enclosure idea seems to be a good one as it looks pretty good, is durable and cheap. Materials include cement, red bricks, tile, a door made or waterproof material and of course the sink itself. The most expensive part of doing it this way will be the door itself, which will cost upwards of 1000 Baht.

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During the building of a house, adding grounded electrical is not expensive. The additional cost would be the cost of the ground wire, which will need to be run to each receptacle, the cost of the grounding rod and wire, and the cost of grounded sockets. Grounded sockets are quite a bit more expensive than ungrounded, but they still are not very expensive, ie. a ungrounded socket costs about 8 Baht, a grounded one costs more than 70 Baht. If a house is done without being grounding it would be very expensive to redo it later to add the ground. One of the primary motivations to build a house (for me) instead of renting is that previous rental houses didn't have grounded electrical. I would get shocked just by looking at my computer! OK, maybe that is a bit of an overstatement, but with the computer, if I wanted to hook up something (like a USB device) I would shut the computer down and turn off the electric surge protector. Even after the surge protector was turned off I would still get shocked! And touching the computer when turned on would lead to a nasty shock. Now, after living in a house with grounded electric, I would never go back to ungrounded.

Some other things which should be considered before starting on your building project. Normally the electric is run directly from the street into the roof of the house. A somewhat fancier option is to run the wire underground from the meter into the house. The approach should be decided at the onset of construction. This now brings us to an important topic, the electric plan. Normally it is done on the fly, but I can see the advantage to having an electrician do up an electric plan up front. The electric layout is not a part of the regular plan (blueprint) done by an architect. Depending on the complexity, it might be useful to have a official plan done before starting construction. It isn't hard to find electrical subcontractors who will do a plan, but I'm not sure of the cost involved. As an alternative, talk to the electrician about all the options up front and have him rough sketch the plan with you.

Electric is necessary during the construction process for tools and other necessities. An application can be made at the electric office for 'temporary' electric which the regulations state should not be used more that 6 months. Your electrician will prepare a place for a temporary meter on the nearest electric post. The electric department will then come out and inspect and, if it passes, hook up the temporary meter. You can then have the electric wire run from the meter to the building site. There is a deposit required at the Bang La Mung electric department (Pattaya) to activate the temporary electric of 10,000 Baht.

Whether buying or building a house, a good thing to check for is electrical conduit. There are two types, PVC and metal. It shields and the electric wire from all kinds of things, and because of the fact that there really are no inspections here, it is often omitted.

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OtherThe details of the perimeter wall, water system and gate.
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Perimeter Wall


There are in general two main categories of perimeter walls: the 'heavy duty' concrete block constructed perimeter wall and the less heavy duty wire fence.
Wire Fence

You might consider this option if you're trying to fence of a large area and just need something quick and cheap. Normally these are made of prefabricated posts that cost about 100 Baht each, some cement and wire, the total cost being much less than a cement block wall. The wire used can be barbed or straight. This won't work if you are going to add fill dirt up to the border of your land, since the wall will not function as a retaining wall.

Cement Block Wall

Walls that are built from concrete blocks are great. They are durable and help hold in the fill dirt. Some things to be on the lookout for are: 1.) Poured fence posts and much stronger than prefabricated ones. 2.) The fence post should be poured around the rebar structure after the cement blocks are laid in-between. This binds the structure together and is much stronger than if the posts are poured first. 3.) The ideal distance between posts is about 2.5 meters (the inside measurement from post to post). 4.) The main ingredient which makes the cement blocks themselves strong is the application of the cement stucco. The stucco application should be at least about 5 millimeters thick.

Various Options
Wall Examination

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Considering building a house or having trouble with your water supply? These days water is of primary concern no matter where you are. Not to worry, there are a number of options as follows:

If you are in the city area you can hook up to city water. This is the easiest and cheapest (at least to set up).

Some housing developments outside of the city area will have communal wells which serve the entire development. Water charges are up to the administrator of the well and can be very expensive.

A regular ‘dug’ well. These wells are hand dug and are normally 7 or more meters deep, depending on the underlying water level.

A deep water well. A truck will come out and ‘drill’ a 4 inch hole for pipe placement. The well is much deeper than a standard well, normally 30 or more meters.

City Water

City water is the way to go if you are in a covered area. The cost is 3.5 Baht per unit per month. A unit is one cubic meter. Cheap and relatively high quality. If you are building with the city, you will first need to apply. Hookup cost will vary depending on the convenience of the water main. Service and quality can vary by area. In some areas of Chonburi I've heard that there are long periodic water outages with city water.

Communal Wells

This can be like being caught between a rock and a hard spot. My brief experience with communal wells has not been pleasant. When renting a regular house in a fairly nice area I found the water service to be terrible. The ‘administrator’ of water in a small area with about 50 houses claimed the water was not sufficient and would turn off the water periodically, with no notice, for periods of up to 1 week. There is no regulation, so everyone complains but nothing happens. His reason for shutting down the well is vague (pipe broken somewhere in the system) and there is no time table given for repair. Then it has gotten even worse with the water going offline virtually all the time except for 1 hour a day in the morning.
the full Info->Water Article

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Gate and Security Metal


For the most part getting a metal gate and metal security fencing made and installed is a pretty simple process. Make a trip to a few different metal shops to get bids. They will come out and measure the area before giving the bid. As far as the style, they have books with hundreds of different styles to choose from. From ornate to simple, it is just a matter of picking out the design. The simpler designs save on labor time and can be just as attractive. As I describe in the cool gate write up, in my particular case I had day laborers on-hand who were skilled in metal work and could do the job. If you find yourself in this situation realize that normally in this type of case the gate and metal security fencing cannot be very ornate. There will be limitations on bending metals and shaping design work. In the stated case all materials needing to be specially shaped were purchased from a shop who sold prefabricated designs.

As far as cost and style, the most basic decision is whether to go stainless or not. Stainless is better quality and will not rust. Except for the detail highlights stainless isn't painted, so there is no paint to wear off. The downside is that stainless is very expensive, probably at least twice the cost of using regular metal. Not only that, on less than large luxury houses I don't think it looks that good, being that it is kind of pretentious and gaudy looking. Besides, if regular metal is properly primed and painted, rust is not that much of a problem.

The most critical part of the gate, in my estimation, is the wheels. I've been in rental houses with the cheap 1" wheels, and they are produced to last about 6 months. After that the bearings start to go, and it is a painful ordeal to open the gate. If you going to the trouble to put it together, use good wheels. The really good wheels are made from stainless and are difficult to find in and around Pattaya. I bought the ones in this example on Theppasit road, and paid a really inflated rip-off price. Then later I saw good quality 3" stainless wheels at Homepro for under 400 Baht each, less than 1/2 what I paid.

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Planter Boxes Etc


Neat add-on projects can spruce up the appearance of a house. Here are some ideas.

Planter Boxes

Planter boxes can be built from a number of different materials, and of course in any size desired. The can be designed as a natural 'separation' wall, as in the example shown here. In this case we separate the patio from the carport and front of the house. The materials used are red bricks, cement and metal rebar for strength.

Paving Stone Walkway

Paving stones like these come in various shapes and colors. In this example we use sand to level the area in front of the patio that was for the entry path. Then the paving stones were placed on top of the sand to complete the walkway.

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There are many specialty companies that do metals and specifically gutters. They carry 4, 5 and 6 inch width gutters. In the example shown here, 6" gutters are used, which is normally the recommended width. The normal galvanized gutters run about 180 Baht per linear meter (installed), the gutter and downspout counting separately. When you move up to stainless, which is rust proof, the cost goes up to about 400 per linear meter. The galvanized is slow to rust, in has a life span of probably 10 years or more.

The company will come out and measure your roof. They then bring all the materials and assemble the gutters on-site. They basically weld different sections together to make the required length. Then brackets are set and the gutter is laid in appropriately. The gutters are sloped at about 2% to allow the water to run down and out the downspout.

Gutters are often used in combination with water tanks to capture and store rain water.

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Last additions - Original Coolthaihouse Info
The front gutter system. (15-Aug-04)dozerSep 28, 2011
The rear gutter and down spout.(13-Aug-04)dozerSep 28, 2011
Added the final gutter on top of the patio. (23-Jun-04)dozerSep 28, 2011
Interconnected gutters. (19-Jun-04)dozerSep 28, 2011

Random files - Original Coolthaihouse Info
An example of a front wood entry door. (19-Aug-04)dozer
I like stainless steel tanks which come in various sizes and shapes. For a single family house I would recommend storage size of 1000 or more liters. The cheaper plastic type (which you can see in the lower right of this picture) are not recommended. They supposedly are harder to clean and have problems with algae growth. I recently priced an 1600 liter stainless steel tank for 8500 Baht including delivery. (21-Apr-04)dozer
Wheels: The gate wheels are very important. There are two sets of heavy duty 3" stainless steel wheels needed to support a sliding driveway gate. (27-Aug-04)dozer
The frame for a PVC bathroom doors are themselves made of PVC, and as such they need a support housing when they are being set-up, otherwise the weight of cement above the door will cause the frame to bend. (15-May-04)dozer
Stones like this need to be placed around the well.dozer
This shows a wood window with outside hinges and hooks which are used to keep the window open. I prefer the top and bottom hinge system with wood windows.dozer
Regular Surface Dug Well: The basic materials for a hand dug well is a prefabricated concrete circular drainage ring drainage ringlike the one shown at the left. The drainage assembly comes in 3 basic diameters, 1 meter, 1.2 meter and 1.5 meters. Each piece has a depth of about 30 cm., so there are about 3 per meter. The smaller diameter is normally sufficient for a single house. (19-Apr-04) dozer
Metal supports are spaced at about 2/3 meter square.dozer